Saturday, September 27, 2014

100 STUNNING WONDERS OF THE WORLD PART 3

51 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, USA
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park - National Park, United States, on the island of Hawaii rapolozhenny in the state of Hawaii.Founded nearly 100 years ago. The park area is about 1500 square meters. km. In the park you can see the result of thousands of years of volcanic activity, migration and evolution that have shaped the land in the middle of the ocean with a unique ecosystem.






Go to the park include Kilauea (Kilauea, translated from the Hawaiian "belching strongly spreads"). This is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Its altitude 1247 meters. This is also the youngest of the Hawaiian volcanoes. The last eruption of Kilauea began in 1983 and continues to the present. Kilauea is considered to be the habitat of Pele - Hawaiian volcano goddess. Called by its name, some lava formation, for example, "the tears of Pele" (small droplets of lava that cooled the air and take the form of tears) and "hair Pele" (thin strands of volcanic glass obsidian, formed as a result of rapid cooling of lava at the run-off into the ocean ).
52 Great Mosque of Hassan-II, Casablanca, Morocco

Great Mosque of Hassan II was built in power of King Hassan II in 1993. It is located in Casablanca on the Ocean. The height of the minaret of the mosque 200 meters. It is the tallest religious structure in the world. Minaret 30 meters above the famous pyramids of Cheops and 40 meters - St. Peter's Cathedral. At the same time in the Hassan II Mosque to pray 20 thousand. Believers and another 80 thousand. - On the square next to it.



The total cost of construction was approximately $ 800 million. And all these were donations of the faithful. Mosque of Hassan II - one of the few religious buildings in Morocco, where they release non-Muslims.

Are you traveling THREE AND Nochka

Inside the prayer hall is decorated with 78 columns of pink granite, the floors are covered with slabs of marble, gold and green onyx, under-floor heating in the winter, and the central part of the roof can be moved apart.





Paying 100 dirhams (about 10 dollars), anyone can get inside and take photos. It is also noteworthy that the architect of the mosque - Frenchman Michel Pins - was not a Muslim.
53 City of Florence, Florence, Italy


City of Florence - a city in the Italian region of Tuscany, on the Arno River. The current population of over 350 thousand. Persons. Florence - a city-museum, one of the most famous and ancient cultural centers in Europe, often called the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance or the "Athens of Italy." In 59 BC on the site of the present village of Florence was founded Roman veterans, named Florentia (translated from Latin as "blooming"). Later it became a city that in the IV century BC became the seat of a bishop. Florence then fell under Byzantine rule, the Ostrogoths, Lombards and Franks. As a result of the vagaries of the population has decreased significantly. The revival of the city began in the X century, and since the beginning of the XII century. Florence became an independent commune. In a mid-XIII century. Florence introduced its own gold coin, Florin, who became one of the most stable coins in Europe.



The city's economy was based on the production of wool. In 1340-ies of the city's population is about 80 thousand. Man, but then an epidemic of "black death" it sharply reduced. In the first half of the XIV century. coming to power of the Medici dynasty, but their supremacy was short-lived, at the end of the century the people driving them and proclaims the Republic of Florence. In the Republican period are created such great personalities like Leonardo, Savonarola, Machiavelli and Michelangelo.





Considerable damage was done to the city by bombing during the Second World War. Among the main attractions of the city: the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (Duomo), the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Santa Croce Basilica and the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella, Uffizi Gallery, Pitti Palace Museums and Academy Gallery, Palazzo Vecchio, Palazzo Pitti and the Palazzo Rucellai, Piazza della Signoria, the Republic of Liberty and, of course, the Ponte Vecchio and Ponte Santa Trinita.
54 Acropolis and the Parthenon, Athens, Greece

Acropolis of Athens - Acropolis (translated from the Greek "high city") in Athens, which is a 156-meter-high rocky hill with a flat top. The first fortifications here date back to the VI millennium BC Already at the time it was occupied by the archaic majestic temples, sculptures and other relics. In the Mycenaean period (XV-XIII centuries BC.) Acropolis was a fortified royal residence. In the VII-VI centuries. BC on the Acropolis was conducted large-scale construction. When the tyrant Pisistratus (560-527 BC.) In place of the royal palace was built the temple of the goddess Athena Gekatompedon (temple length in one step). In 480 BC during the Greco-Persian wars Acropolis temples were destroyed by the Persians.

Parthenon - the most famous monument of ancient architecture, situated on the Athenian Acropolis. This is the main temple in ancient Athens, dedicated to the patroness of the city and the whole of Attica, Athena-Virgin. Built in 447-438 BCCallicrates architect in place of the temple of the goddess Gekatompedon. For some time the Parthenon was intact throughout its splendor. In the II century BC church burned down, but it was repaired. After the conquest of Greece (146 BC) the Romans were taken to his home most of the sculptures. In the second half of the VI century, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church.

The Parthenon was thought to the smallest detail, it is invisible to the outside observer, and aimed to visually lighten the load on the load-bearing elements, as well as to correct some errors of human vision. Architectural historians separately allocated concept kurvatura Parthenon - a special curvature to make optical adjustments. Although the temple seems perfectly straightforward, but in fact in his contours, there is almost no one is strictly a straight line. Masonry was carried out without any mortar or cement, and the floors were wooden.



In the center of the temple was a 11-meter high statue of Athena Parthenos. It was made of gold and ivory. Sculpture was not preserved and is known by various and numerous copies of the images on coins. The looting of the monument was continued in the XVIII century, this time the Europeans were interested in antiquity. After the independence of Greece in the course of restoration work (mainly in the late XIX century) as much as possible has been restored ancient appearance of the Acropolis: Eliminate all the later buildings on its territory, re-tiled temple of Athena Nike and others. Reliefs and sculptures of the temples of the Acropolis in the British Museum, in the Louvre Museum and the Acropolis. The remaining open-air sculpture replaced now copies.
55 Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France



Versailles Palace - a grand palace of the French kings in the Paris suburb of Versailles. The history of the Palace of Versailles begins in 1623 with a very modest hunting lodge, which was built at the request of Louis XIII of brick, stone and slate. Hunting castle was in the place where now stands the marble courtyard. Its dimensions were 24h6 meters. In 1632, the territory was expanded through the purchase of the Versailles estate. Since 1661, "Sun King" Louis XIV began to expand the palace in order to use it as their permanent residence. Architects have updated and expanded the palace in the style of Baroque and Classicism. Now the entire facade of the palace from the garden occupies a large gallery (Mirror Gallery, Gallery of Louis XIV), which his paintings, mirrors and columns impresses. In addition it is also worth mentioning Gallery battles, the palace chapel and the palace theater.



Landscape park of Versailles Palace - one of the largest and most important in Europe. It consists of many terraces that drop as the distance from the palace. Flower beds, lawns, greenhouse, swimming pools, fountains and numerous sculptures represent a continuation of palace architecture.




In the gardens of Versailles are also several small dvortseobraznyh structures. Around the palace gradually there was a city in which settled artisans supplying the royal court. The Palace of Versailles was of great importance in the German-French history. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in the second half of the XIX century. it was the residence of the chief of staff of the German army. In 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors was proclaimed German Empire. This place was deliberately chosen in order to humiliate the French.



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At the end of World War I in the Palace of Versailles was signed a preliminary cease-fire, as well as the Treaty of Versailles, which defeated the German Empire was forced to sign. This time, the historic site was chosen by the French, in order to humiliate the Germans.

Many palaces of Europe were built following the example of Versailles. These include the castles of Sanssouci in Potsdam, Sch√∂nbrunn in Vienna, the Grand Palace in Peterhof and Gatchina, and other palaces in Germany, Austria and Italy.
56 Registan, Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Registan - the "heart" of the ancient Samarkand in Uzbekistan. The name means "sandy place". Say the name comes from the fact that the land here was strewn with sand to soak up the blood of the victims of public executions, allegedly committed at this place until the beginning of the XX century. They say that the Registan was a place where Tamerlane flaunt heads of their victims, who have been impaled on the pins as well as a place where people gathered to listen to the royal decrees, which before reading loudly trumpeted in the copper pipes.



The ensemble consists of three main square of Registan madrassas (Islamic schools to train the clergy): Ulugbek Madrasah (early XV century.), Sher Dor (first half of the XVII century.) And Tilla Kori (the middle of the XVII century.). Ulugbek Madrasah drawn to the area of ​​the majestic portal with lancet arch. In the corners there are high minarets. Above the entrance arch mosaic with geometric designs. In the courtyard, which has a square shape, are a mosque, lecture rooms and a perimeter - living rooms, where students lived. The axes yard located deep niches.




It was one of the best universities in the Muslim East, the spiritual of the XV century. In the XVII century the ruler of Samarkand Yalangtush Bakhodur ordered to begin construction of the Sher Dor (madrassas "tigers") and Tilla Kori ("dressed in gold"). In Tilla Kori not only conducted classes, but was the main mosque in the city. Finishing madrassas not as refined as the construction of the XV century, however, the harmony of large and small forms and elegant drawing mosaic, monumental clarity of symmetry - all this puts madrassa on a par with the best architectural monuments of Samarkand. To the east of Tilla Kori Sheibanids the mausoleum, which is a conglomeration of tombstones, the oldest of which dates to the XVI century.Behind Sher Dor is the ancient trading dome Chorsu, confirming the status of the Registan as a commercial center of medieval Samarkand.
57 Big Ben and the Palace of Westminster, London, UK



Palace of Westminster - building on the banks of the Thames in the London borough of Westminster. Here are the meeting of the British Parliament: House of Lords and House of Commons. Initially (up to 1529) served as the seat of the capital of the English kings. After a fire in 1834, the palace was rebuilt in neo-gothic design.



From the medieval Palace of Westminster survived the reception hall (1097) and the Tower of Jewels (built for the storage of treasury Edward III). In the palace of 1200 rooms, 100 staircases and corridors more than a kilometer. Towers of the palace the most famous clock tower "Big Ben".

Big Ben - the bell tower in London, part of the architectural complex of the Palace of Westminster. The official name - "Clock Tower of Westminster Palace", also it is called "St. Stephen's Tower." Actually, "Big Ben" - the building itself and the clock with the bell. The tower was erected in 1858, and the tower clock was set in motion 21 May 1859. Tower height of 61 meters (not counting the spire); hours at a height of 55 m above the ground.


When the diameter of the dial at 7 meters and length of the arrows in the 2.7 and 4.2 meters, watches have long been considered the biggest in the world. At the base of each of the four dials is the Latin inscription «Domine salvam fac Reginam nostram Victoriam Primam» (translated from the Latin, "God Save our Queen Victoria"). Big Ben is one of the most recognizable symbols of the United Kingdom, commonly used in advertising, films, etc. Westminster Palace opens to visitors only a few weeks a year. Roughly enjoy informative tour semidesyatiminutnoy can during September.
58 Mont-Saint-Michel, Normandy, France

Mont-Saint-Michel (in French "Mount St. Michael") - a small rocky island-mountain turned into an island fortress in the north-west coast of France. He is the only inhabited of the three granite formations of the bay of Saint-Michel (Mont Saint Michel, Mont Tomblen and Dole). Town on the island, there is a 709 years old. Currently has 80 people. Since 1879, the island is connected to the mainland by a causeway. The island is a granite formation about 930 m in diameter and a height of 92 m above sea level.


Mont Saint-Michel is famous Benedictine abbey, built in XI-XIV centuries. Abbey occupies an area of ​​about 55,000 square meters. m and is a perfectly preserved example of a fortified medieval French monastery. Abbey is still in effect, in it resides about 50 Benedictine monks. Topped by a spire of the abbey island striking grandeur and majesty. Today it is a place of pilgrimage. Abbey attracts tourists from all over the world as a living legend, after the biblical battle of Archangel Michael with Satan in the form of a dragon was completed, according to legend, it was here. Mont Saint-Michel is also mentioned in the Arthurian legends. In particular, it was told that Arthur battled giant who lived here, and that somewhere in the thick walls of the abbey immured Holy Grail.



In the first half of X. Normans seized the Cotentin peninsula (Cotentin), and the island became a strategically important point on the border with Brittany. While on the rock church was built in the pre-Romanesque style. For many years the island, fortified by nature, reflected repeated Viking raids. Sunset might monastery began during the Hundred Years War. British precipitated abbey in 1424 to 1434, but have not been able to capture the island. The city, however, was almost completely destroyed. However, since the middle of the XV century. Abbey again began to take pilgrims. But despite this, as well as the completion of construction in 1520 of the central building in the late Gothic style, Mont-Saint-Michel gradually fell into disrepair and by the time of the French Revolution was almost abandoned. The monastery was closed (the monks returned to the island only in 1966), and up to 1863 the island was used as a prison.

Mont Saint-Michel is the most popular tourist destination in Normandy. Every year the island is visited by about 3.5 million people. In France, Mont Saint-Michel is inferior in popularity only the Eiffel Tower and Versailles. By the fortress during high tides (the highest in the entire European coast - up to 9 m.) Can only be reached by boat. At high tide the water comes at a speed of 20 km / h. At low tide the fortress walking on dry land.
59 Royal Palace and Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

Royal Palace - the residence of the monarchs of Thailand. Built in 1783, the palace is situated in the heart of Bangkok and covers a total area of over 200,000 sq.m. In addition to his own palace, located within the walls of office buildings and the Royal Chapel of the Emerald Buddha.



The complex also includes the Royal Palace, the oldest preserved to this day the building of Bangkok Dusit district forming two-Mahaprasat (Dusit-Mahaprasat) and Mahamontien (Mahamontien).


North of the royal residence (Mahamontien) is the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, is connected to the gates of the royal residence. Temple of the Emerald Buddha includes all buildings, typical of the monastery, except housing for the monks, the monks are not settled. "The Emerald Buddha" is created from a single large piece of jadeite. The statue itself is a man sitting on a golden altar of Buddha in the classic pose.

The first mention of this statue belongs to 1464 It is an object of national pride of Thai people, and not only foreigners, but also Thais visited the statue to express their commemoration of the Buddha and his teachings.
60 Egret Castle, Himeji, Japan

Castle of the White Heron (Himeji) - one of the oldest surviving castles in Japan, and the most popular among tourists. Just castle complex includes 83 buildings, almost all of them built of wood. The erection of the castle at the foot of the mountain Hime (Hyogo Prefecture, the area of Harim, Honshu Island) began in the middle of the XIV century. It is named for the special elegance of form and elegance reminiscent of a beautiful snow-white bird.



Himeji served as a model for the glory of countless castles future generations. Its high stone foundation, carefully whitewashed walls, battlements, loopholes have become part of the arsenal of techniques of Japanese architecture. The original castle built 1333-1346's not just passed from one to another samurai clan. By the end of the XVI century the castle was badly battered strife and required major repairs. Then came nearly all of its current facilities over which a height of 45 meters ascended seven storied main tower.



Extensive gardens around the castle is in the form of spiral maze with many dead ends, so as to force the attackers for hours wandering in circles, while it will be carried out by shooting. This ingenious idea never have been tested in force, as after the completion of construction in this part of Japan came relatively peaceful time. Over the next two centuries, near the castle town of Himeji up. In 1871, the castle was seized egret owners and went under the hammer for 23 yen. At the end of the Second World War the castle grounds affected by the bombing of the American aircraft, but he escaped unscathed.

The castle grounds were shooting many films. In one of the first films of "James Bond", "You Only Live Twice", he appeared as a secret ninja school. In 2003, Himeji filmed historical painting "The Last Samurai" with Tom Cruise in the lead role.

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