Tuesday, September 30, 2014


11 The rain forests of the Amazon, the Amazon basin, Brazil
Rainforests of Amazonia , or the Amazon jungle is an extensive, almost flat plain, covering almost the entire Amazon basin.Actually forest covers 5.5 million. Sq. km. He is located in nine countries (Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Forests in the Amazon - the largest tropical forest in the world. They take up half of the total left on the planet rainforest. Tropical rainforests of South America have the highest biodiversity. The diversity of plants and animals there are much higher than in the tropical forests of Africa and Asia. One in ten described species of animal or plant is widespread in the Amazon jungle.
There has been described, at least 40,000 plant species, more than 3 thousand species of fish, 1,300 species of birds, 500 species of mammals, over 400 species of amphibians, nearly 400 species of reptiles and about 100 thousand different species of invertebrates. Here there is the greatest diversity of plants in the world.
According to some experts, per 1 square kilometer there has to 150,000 species of higher plants, including 75 thousand species of trees. In the Amazon jungle is home to many animals that may pose a serious risk to humans. Of large predators live here jaguar, anaconda and caiman.
In the rivers are electric eels and candiru, trees live a different kind of tailless amphibians from the family of climbers, the skin that secrete a powerful poison. There is also home to a variety of parasites and vectors of infectious diseases. In particular, certain species of bats can be carriers of rabies virus. Warm moist IDE creates favorable conditions for the spread of malaria, dengue fever and other infectious diseases, their vectors.
Amazon lowlands populated very weakly. The main means of communication - the river; along which there are small villages and two major cities: Manaus - at the mouth of the Rio Negro and Belen - in the estuary. Steam; the latest from Brasilia paved highway. Due to the ongoing climate change and tree cutting massive amounts of the Amazon rainforest could become the Cerrado - the predominant type of arid savannah in contemporary Brazil.
4059776_31140614 (150x113, 29Kb)
On the basis of satellite monitoring of the Amazon River floodplain in the past few decades, scientists have noted a reduction in forest by 70%. Deforestation negative impact on the fragile ecological balance of the Amazon forest, and led to the extinction of many species of trees, plants and animals.
In addition, the decomposition of wood waste and other vegetation as a result of deforestation and the burning of forests leads to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions by a quarter in the atmosphere. This in turn increases the greenhouse effect.
12 Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia
Angkor - The Khmer Empire metropolitan area IX-XV centuries. dominate the whole of Southeast Asia, which has Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom - outstanding monuments of medieval art Rouge. Angkor stretched for 24 kilometers from east to west and 8 km from north to south. It is located on the banks of the Tonle Sap Lake is about 240 kilometers north-west of the capital Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The construction of this grand temple complex lasted for four centuries. It began to founder of Angkor dynasty prince Dzhayyavarman II at 802 g, and the last temple complexes were built by King Dzhayyavarmanom VII to XII century. After his death in 1218, the construction stopped, the builders of Angkor ended their centuries-old project.According to another version, in the Khmer Empire just finished mine sandstone.
Interestingly, all the successors Dzhayyavarman II followed his principles of construction. Each new ruler of the city of finishing work in such a way that its kernel is constantly moving: the old town center turned out to be on the edge of a new one. It gradually grew this giant city. In the center of each time the temple was built five-turret, symbolizing Mount Meru, the center of the world. As a result, Angkor Wat has turned into a complex of temples. Before our time Angkor came not just as a city, but rather as a temple city. In the days of the Khmer Empire residential and public buildings were constructed of wood, which is rapidly degraded under the influence of a hot and humid tropical climate. With the construction of temples often used stone-sandstone. The city walls were built of tufa. This explains the relatively good preservation of the religious and fortifications in the absence of a housing estate. However, in the heyday of the empire alone Angkor Tom lived more than a million people, which was larger than any European city of the time.
Angkor - 21
The temple of Ta Prohm was built Dzhayyavarmanom VII in memory of his mother. Now it is interesting in that it did not become clear of the jungle. Temple appears bearing the stamp of extraordinary beauty, here the entire surface is covered with a cloak of tree roots and lush greenery. Since the end of the civil war in Cambodia, and the inclusion of the Angkor complex in the UNESCO World Heritage in the other temples under active restoration. Preah Khan (in Khmer "sacred sword") - a huge temple built in honor of the victory over King tyamami Dzhayyavarmanom VII at the end of the XII century. In another version of the temple was dedicated to the memory of his father the king. Back in the late nineties of the XX century, as well as Ta PromHim, it was a jungle-covered ruins, with their gigantic, grown on trees. Now they are working restorers of the United States. The vegetation is almost completely removed.

Beautiful monument of the whole complex of Angkor is the most famous and well-preserved temple of Angkor Wat, which was built for thirty years under the reign of Suryavarman II. After the death of the King of the temple took it into their walls and became a tomb-mausoleum. In situated at a distance of two kilometers fortress Angkor Thom is particularly noteworthy central Bayon temple and its fifty four huge towers, each of which is decorated with four guises Buddha. According to one version of the image of the Buddha was a portrait of the king himself. This temple was the last built at Angkor largest place of worship. This thriving tourist center has an international airport and many modern hotels. The distance from the center of Siam Reap to the main temple complex - Angkor Wat is about 5 km.
13 Sands of the Sahara, North Africa, Egypt.

Sahara - the largest desert in the world, with an area of about 9,000,000 square kilometers, which is slightly less than the area of the United States of America. Sahara is located in Northern Africa, in more than ten countries (Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan). Sugar defies categorization within the same type of desert, although predominant sandy-rocky type.

As part of the desert regions of distinguished set: Ténéré, the Great Eastern Erg, the Great Western Erg, Tanezruft, Hamad al-Hamra, Erg Igidi, Erg Shesh, Arabian, Libyan, Nubian desert. The name "Sahara" - is the Arabic translation Tuareg word "Ténéré" meaning desert.
In 2008, an international team of scientists from Germany, Canada and the United States as a result of studies have found that the Sahara became a desert about 2,700 years ago as a result of very slow evolution of the climate. These scientists were able to make conclusions based on the study of geological sediments dredged from the lake Joa, located in the north of Chad. According to studies, about 6 thousand. Years ago in the Sahara were trees and had a lot of lakes.
Thus, the work of scientists refute the existing theory of the transformation of this part of Africa in the wilderness of 5.5 thousand. Years ago and that the desertification process took only a few centuries. In the Sahara, every year there is about 160 thousand. Mirages. They are stable and wandering, vertical and horizontal. Composed even special cards caravan routes to the assessment of places usually seen mirages. These maps indicated where there are wells, oases, palm groves, mountain ranges.
14 Salar de Uyuni, Altiplano plateau, Bolivia.

Salar de Uyuni - dried-up salt lake in the south of the desert plains of the Altiplano in Bolivia at an altitude of 3650 m above sea level. Has an area of 10.5 thousand. Sq km and is the largest salt marsh in the world. Located near the town of Uyuni in the departments of Oruro and Potosi in the south-west of the country. The inner part of the lake is covered with a layer of salt thickness from 2 to 8 meters! During the rainy season marsh covered with a thin layer of water and turns into the world's largest mirror.
About 40 thousand. Years ago, this area was part of Lake Minchin. After drying left two currently existing lakes Poopó and Uru Uru, and two large salt marsh: the Salar de Uyuni and Koypasa. According to experts, the Salar de Uyuni contains a reserve of 10 billion. Tons of salt, of which the annual production of less than 25 thousand. Tons.
Thanks to the development of tourism in the Salar de Uyuni, local residents began to build hotels of salt blocks, where you can stay for the night. In addition, the Salar de Uyuni is the perfect tool for testing and calibration of remote sensing instruments on orbiting satellites. Clear skies and dry air Uyuni allow to calibrate satellites five times better than if you had used the surface of the ocean.
15 The ice in Antarctica, South Pole, Antarctica
Antarctica (in Greek, "the opposite of the Arctic") - a continent located in the far south of the Earth, the center of Antarctica roughly coincides with the south geographic pole. The area of the continent is about 15 million square kilometers (of which 1.6 million square kilometers of ice shelves are). Antarctica was discovered in 1820 by the Russian expedition led by Thaddeus Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev. First entered the mainland in 1895, the captain of the Norwegian ship "Antarctic" Christensen and Science teacher Karlsten Borhgrёvink.
Antarctica - the highest continent on Earth, the average height of the surface of the continent above sea level is 2000 m, and in the center of the continent up to 4000 meters. Most of this altitude is the permanent ice cover of the continent, which is hidden under the continental relief and only ~ 5% of its area free of ice - mostly in West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains: islands, coastal areas, the so-called "Dry Valleys" and some ridges and mountain peaks (nunataks), towering over the ice surface.
Antarctic ice sheet is the largest on the planet and the closest in size exceeds the Greenland ice sheet over the area about 10 times. In it is concentrated about 30 million square feet. km ice, i.e. 90% of all ice sushi. The average thickness of the ice layer - 2 500-2 800 m, reaching a maximum value in some areas of East Antarctica - up to 5 kilometers.
Feature of Antarctica is a large area of ​​ice shelves (low "blue" region of West Antarctica) is ~ 10% of the area, towering above the sea level; These glaciers are the source of icebergs record size. In winter (summer in the northern hemisphere) the area of ​​sea ice around Antarctica increased to 18 million square kilometers, and in summer decreases to 3.4 million square kilometers
In accordance with the convention of the Antarctic, Antarctica does not belong to any state. Allowed only scientific activity.Placement of military facilities, as well as set warships and armed vessels to the south of 60 degrees latitude prohibited.Because of the severity of the climate in Antarctica has no permanent population. Temporary population of Antarctica varies from 4,000 to 1,000 in the summer in the winter.
16 Ha Long Bay, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam
Ha Long - the bay in the Gulf of Tonkin, Ha Long. Bay is a picturesque seaside landscape through scattered in shallow rocky limestone islands. Due to the inaccessible terrain almost all the islands are uninhabited and unaffected by human influence.Exceptional aesthetics of the area combined with its biological value. The bay is located in the north-east of Vietnam, it extends from region to region Hurng Ian Van Don, its length is 120 km along the coast.
In the bay is scattered almost two thousand limestone islands, each of which is covered with wild vegetation. Most of the islands are under the form of the tower height from 50 to 100 meters.
Some of the islands are hollow, with enormous caves. The largest cave in the bay "Hang Dau-Go" - one of the main attractions of the region. In the bay there is a large inhabited islands (Tuan Chau Cat Ba), which even built hotels.
Local legends say that when the Vietnamese were fighting Chinese invaders, the gods sent dragons to help the Vietnamese.Dragons spewed from their mouths gems that turned into stone island. As a result, the island formed a wall. It saved locals and allowed to keep their land. Dragons enjoyed on the ground and they decided to stay. The place to which sank Mother of Dragons, called Ha Long (Long translated from Vietnamese means "dragon"), and a place that chose her children - Bai Tu Long.
Ha Long Bay is the main attraction of Vietnam. And those who have never been to this place, could see him in a series of Hollywood films about James Bond film "Tomorrow Never Dies".
17 The island of Bora Bora, French Polynesia, Pacific Ocean
Bora Bora - one of the Leeward Islands Archipelago Society Islands in French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean. Bora Bora is an atoll typical Thomas the central mountain, surrounded by a coral reef with numerous Motu.
Central island consists mainly of basaltic lava, while Motu - of coral fragments and layers of sand. Elongated central island is 9 km long and 5 km at its widest point. Settlements are located exclusively on the coast, while covered with lush interior of the island inaccessible.
Ring road paved, length 32 km, surrounds the island, making available travel between coastal settlements and hotels, while the interior of the island in some places is only available on machines terrain.
The population of Bora Bora is about 7 500 people. The largest settlement of Vaitape (about 4000 inhabitants), located in the western part of the island, opposite the main passage into the lagoon, which is so deep that it is able to pass even the big cruise ships.
Inhabited islands of the Company within the Polynesian expansion occurred relatively late. When the first wave of settlement were reached Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and the Marquesas Islands in prison, from which about 400, there was a settlement of the Society Islands. European discoverer of the island is considered to James Cook. He first landed on Bora Bora only in 1777, during his third voyage. April 2, 1786 French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville reached Tahiti and Society Islands declared possession of France, thus founding the modern French Polynesia. During World War II, after the Japanese attack on the naval aviation Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, Bora Bora is becoming an important supply base for the United States in the South Pacific. Nevertheless, during the war, the base has never been attacked, and in 1946 was disbanded. Today, Bora Bora is part of the territories of French Polynesia.
Monetary unit of French Polynesia is the Pacific franc whose value is fixed against the euro. The island's economy is based almost entirely on tourism. Bora Bora, along with Tahiti, is considered one of the most open tourist islands of the South Pacific. The island abounds with numerous high-end hotels, frequented mostly by American and Japanese tourists. Many hotels Class "luxury" located on the motu and offer vacationers home located directly on stilts in the lagoon.
The main attraction is the Bora Bora lagoon with its rich marine life. In the depths of the lagoon inhabited by barracuda and sharks, which, under the supervision of an instructor is allowed to feed. The most famous attraction for divers is the "road skates", representing the portion of the lagoon inhabited by many different species of rays.
Worthy of beholding the ruins of more than 40 marae (ceremonial site), most of which are located in the vicinity of the village Faanui.
18 Niagara Falls, United States, Canada
Niagara Falls - the general name of the three waterfalls on the Niagara River, which separates the American state of New York from the Canadian province of Ontario. Niagara Falls - a waterfall, "Horseshoe" (English. Horseshoe Falls), sometimes also called the Canadian Falls (eng. Canadian Falls), American Falls (English. American Falls) and the waterfall "Veil" (English. Bridal Vail Falls).
Although the difference in height and is not very large, the waterfalls are very wide, and by the volume of water passing through it Niagara Falls - the most powerful in North America. The height of the waterfalls is 53 meters. Foot of American Falls obscures a heap of stones, which is why its apparent height is 3 times less. The width of the American Falls - more than 300 m, the waterfall "Horseshoe" - almost 800 m. Name "Niagara" takes its name from the Iroquois word «Onguiaahra», which translated literally means "thunder of water". Local indigenous peoples is Iroquois tribe Ongiara.
USA Urlaub 8.7.2006 - 13.8.2006
The roots of the falls lie in the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended about 10,000 years ago. North American Great Lakes and the Niagara River - is the result of the last continental ice sheet - a massive glacier, heading for the area from the territory of eastern Canada. After the ice melted, the drainage ditch on the part of the Great Lakes has become a modern river Niagara, which could no longer flow through the old valley and formed a new channel in an altered landscape. When the newly formed river came across not susceptible to erosion dolomitic rocks, this layer was eroded more slowly than lying on the lower level of the soft shale and sandy rocks. As a result, the river undercut the solid layers and formed a waterfall.
In the XIX century, tourism came into vogue, and by mid-century, this industry has become mainstream in the region.Popularity waterfall among tourists has increased dramatically after the end of World War I in connection with the spread of traffic. Today, the beauty of this miracle of nature attracts many tourists from all over the world that contributes to the prosperity of the cities located on the banks of the falls of Niagara Falls, New York, USA and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada.The most colorful view of the falls from the Canadian coast opens. A few hundred meters downstream through Niagara spanned "Rainbow Bridge", is open to the movement of light vehicles and pedestrians between the two countries. Under a waterfall built hydropower plants that currently generate up to 4.4 gigawatts of electricity.
19 Pagan, DC Magway, Myanmar (Burma)
Pagan (or Bagan) - the ancient capital of the eponymous kingdom in present-day Myanmar. The city is located on a dry plateau along the west bank of the Irrawaddy River, southeast of Mandalay, near the town of Chowk in Magway District.Currently, the site of the ancient town is an archaeological zone with thousands of pagodas, temples, stupas and monasteries. Pagan ruins cover an area of about 40 square kilometers
Most of the buildings were built during the XI-XIII centuries, when Bagan was the capital of the dynastic kingdom. King Pinbya at the end of the IX century moved to the capital of Bagan. However, transfers of capital in Burmese history occurred frequently, and in the XI century, King Anoratha moved the capital to another city. Anoratha decided to transform Bagan into a cultural center. He adopted the doctrine of Theravada Buddhism as the state religion and spiritual mission sent to Sri Lanka, where the monks arrived and helped him to complete the conversion of the whole country in the Theravada.
Pagan became a center of science, religion and culture, one of the largest cities in the world. At the end of the XIII century the kingdom was occupied by the Mongols. The city was sacked, golden pagodas skinned, numerous religious relics were stolen.
Bagan city itself does not exist - there is only Bagan airport, and several villages (Nyaung U, Ve-Zhi Ying, Minkaba, Old Bagan) in and around the vast archaeological zone littered with thousands of large and small stupas and pagodas. The most important stupas - such as Shvezigon and Lokananda Chown, keeping the teeth of the Buddha - gold plated, approaches to them are paved, and built around a set of pavilions.
Most pagodas were built of red brick and white stone and covered with gold. Less significant pagodas are also protected and restored. In removal costs a lot of very small stupas and pagodas, some of them are destroyed. Spaces between temples - scorched desert places - standing alone palm trees, places - green thickets.
Usually temples symmetrical shape with four altars and statues of the Buddha in each horizon. There is also more than 700 stupas with the holy relics. Interesting and caves "Gubyauchzhi" - temples with a maze of corridors, painted frescoes. Older two-color murals, frescoes later multicolored, and the images are often fantastic and surreal.
This place is very popular with tourists, as there may be more than one day to go from one temple to meditate in front of altars, to climb to the upper tiers of the steep steps and through the inner dark stairs, enjoy the sunset with a special viewing platforms on the tops of temples. Despite the obvious cultural and historical significance, UNESCO has failed to declare Pagan World Heritage site for political reasons.
20 Fjords of Norway, north of the country, Norway
Fjord (translated from Norwegian "bay") - a narrow, sinuous and deeply incised into the land of the bay with rocky shores.The length of the fjord a few (usually in the tens) times greater than the width. The shore of the fjord, in most cases formed by cliffs up to 1000 m. Most cases, the fjords are of tectonic origin and having a sharp and sudden change of direction of motion of tectonic plates from the counter on the opposite. As a result, the edges of slabs already compressed preliminary oncoming traffic formed numerous cracks and fractures which are filled with sea water. In some cases, the appearance of the fjords is the result of processing glaciers river valleys and tectonic depressions, followed by flooding them with water.
In Norway, the fjords are located in the northern part of the country. They were formed during the last ice age. Each fjord has its own characteristics and attractions. Thus, the famous Geiranger fjord highest and picturesque waterfalls. Sognefjord - the longest fjord in the world. Hardangerfjord is famous for the locality where the spring bloom gorgeous orchards. Fox fjord famous Pulpit rock, where you can enjoy a magnificent view, and the most daring can go to the edge of the cliff.
With its beauty and picturesque fjords have earned interest from tourists from all over the world.
Continuation of the wonders of the world is sure to be!)

No comments:

Blogging tips