In Mecca, the hajj once completed. This year, the pilgrimage to the holy places made about 2 million Muslims. According to the representative of the Supreme Council for the Hajj, to Mecca, this time attended by representatives of 163 nations from around the world. From Russia to the Hajj in Saudi Arabia headed about 16.4 thousand. Muslims.
Hajj (Arabic. حج) - pilgrimage associated with a visit to Mecca (Haram) and its surroundings (Mount Arafat, Muzdalifah and Mina) at a certain time. Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam after the Shahada, prayer (namaz), tax (zakat) and fasting (Saum).
History of the Hajj rites, according to Muslim tradition, goes back to the very Prophet Adam and Chava (Eve), after their expulsion from Paradise they met on Mount Arafat (standing on Mount Arafat is one of the obligatory rites of Hajj) and Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son , which had to sacrifice, but Allah has opposed human sacrifice. And to honor the memory of the sacrifice of, it was ordered to make a great sacrifice, the sacrifice of a sacrificial animal. Having tested the faith of His Prophet - Ibrahim (Abraham), Allah not only spared his son, but also revealed that he did not need the bloody sacrifice.
Currently, Muslims around the world celebrate the great feast of the sacrifice on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah - Eid al-Adha (Turk.), Or Eid al-Adha (Ar.), Which is absent in other Abrahamic religions, life only in Islam. For centuries, the meaning and traditions of this holiday were forgotten and re-restored Muhammad.
According to the teachings of Islam, the Hajj must perform at least once in their lifetime by every Muslim who is able to do it. If the person reasonable grounds he can not make the pilgrimage, he has the right to send in his place another person, called "Vakil al-Hajj", paid him all the necessary expenses (but such a man can only be a person who has previously committed the Hajj).
There are a number of mandatory conditions under which it becomes possible to Hajj and Umrah. It is believed that these conditions are the following:
1. Confession of Islam is compulsory, as a non-Muslim or kafir prohibited Hajj and Umrah. Hajj and Umrah prohibited Muslim departing from the true faith of Islam (fasiq).
2. Bulug (maturity) as young children who have not reached maturity, the Shariah does not oblige to make Hajj and Umrah. If a child is reasonable and makes Hajj and Umrah, or one of these actions, his pilgrimage will be considered valid. Despite this, the child does not understand all the meaning of the pilgrimage in the future conduct of the pilgrimage is optional.
3. Akl (soundness of mind) should perform the pilgrimage in his right mind. Hajj and Umrah insane or incompetent person is not really.
4. Hurriya (m) (freedom): servant or imprisoned not made a duty to make a pilgrimage to the holy places.
5. Istitoa (m) (possibility of the) possibility of the Muslim rite of Hajj and Umrah, in accordance with the words of Allah: "It is the responsibility of people towards Allah is the Hajj to the House for those who are able to do so."
Mecca (Arabic. مكة Makka) - city in western Saudi Arabia, about 100 km from the Red Sea. It is a center of pilgrimage for Muslims (see. Hajj). Non-Muslims in Mecca denied entry. Mecca - the holy city of Muslims. In the year 630, reinforcing its position as the Muslim community of Medina, led by the Prophet Muhammad entered Mecca, the city surrendered without a fight, the people embraced Islam. Mecca with the holy Kaaba was transformed into a religious center, and Muslims began to pray facing Mecca, wherever they are.
In the center of Mecca, is the main and largest in the world, Al-Haram (Sanctuary, the Great), in the courtyard which is the main shrine of Islam - Kaaba.
By 2011, the Mecca erected the world's most massive complex of skyscrapers towers Abraj Al Bait, King Tower which is the second tallest building in the world and has the largest and most high-rise in the world of watches. November 13, 2010 open aboveground subway Mecca - the first in the country, provides vysokoprovoznye move around the city and places of pilgrimage rituals of Hajj (the valley of Muzdalifah and Mina, Mount Arafat).
Climate Mecca - tropical desert. Mecca is one of the hottest cities in the world. The absolute minimum of +10 ° C, the absolute maximum +51,4 ° C. The average annual temperature in the city of +30,7 ° C.Rare rainfall in the period from October to April with a peak in December and January, when the city is sometimes rare cyclones reach the Mediterranean Sea. In the remaining months rainfall is almost impossible.
In the valley near Mecca constructed the world's largest tent city of Mina the pilgrims.
In Mecca, during periods of high numbers of pilgrims often occur crush, fires and other incidents with wounded and dead. So, in 1990 in the pedestrian tunnel between Mecca and Mina, killing about 1500 pilgrims.
Kaaba (Arabic. الكعبة «cube") - a Muslim shrine in the form of a cubic construction in the courtyard of the mosque Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. This is one of the main places to collect, according to Koranic prescriptions pilgrims during the Hajj. In one corner of the Kaaba is mounted Black stone - a stone egg-shaped.
According to Muslim tradition, God gave it to Adam, and it was originally white Yakhont, but gradually turned black impregnated with human sin. Non-Muslim tradition, as a rule, consider it a meteorite, but definitely prove it is still not possible. Around the Kaaba during the Hajj ritual performed tawaf. Kaaba is Qiblah - a reference to which turn their Muslims around the world face in prayer.