Thursday, September 25, 2014


Chichen Itza (translated from the Mayan language "in the mouth of the well Itza") - political and cultural center of the Maya in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Chichen Itza is located 1.5 km south of the small town of Piste (Piste), located on the highway connecting the two largest cities in the northern Yucatan, Merida (Merida) and Cancun (Cancun). Founded probably in VII. BC In the X century was captured by the Toltecs. From the middle of XI century Chichen Itza became the capital of the Toltec state. In 1178 was defeated by the united army of three city-states: Mayapan, Uxmal and Itsmalya, headed Hunak Keel. By the time of the Spanish Conquest (middle of the XVI-th century), Chichen Itza was a ruin.
One of the most important architectural monuments in Chichen Itza is the "Temple of Kukulcan" - 9-step pyramid 24 meters high with sweeping staircases on each side. Its symmetrical arrangement, strict orientation to the cardinal points and the number of steps of the staircase symbolize seasons, months and days. During the spring and fall equinoxes here could be seen as the sun's rays fall on the stones of the pyramid so that the feathered serpent Kukulcan, head and tail which were carved respectively on the top and bottom of the pyramid, as if alive and writhing, begins to crawl out of the temple.
Near the center of Chichen Itza located "Well of Death" (cenote), in which he lived Yum Chak - the god of rain and moisture.Cenote Maya considered sacred: the rivers was not around, and suddenly this place limestone failed and water appeared. In another major temple of the city - "Temple of Warriors" - conducted once a spacious hall with columns. Countless column depicting Toltec warriors stand today, but without a roof. There has been detected and a male figure depicted in a somewhat unusual position: reclining, sitting up on his elbows, his head held high. Stone statue, survived the temple and the city looks as proudly and mockingly as 1000 years ago. This is Chuck-HSI - Toltec deity warlike tribe: he holds a large dish, which perhaps once lighted the sacred fire or put it in offerings to the gods.

Also survived to our times statues of deities with a characteristic stylization of plastic forms, reliefs, rich floral and geometric ornamentation, of small plastic and artistic crafts. Furthermore, in the city were 7 "stadiums" for ball games. These playgrounds were amazing acoustic properties of two people, one of which is in the northern temple, and the other - in the South, could quietly talk with each other, did not straining the voice, although they shared a distance of one hundred and fifty meters. Moreover, no one else (unless he is standing next to a conversation) could not hear their conversation. This "system for negotiation" exists at the site of the present day, all tourists can afford to test its effect. Total Chichen Itza covers an area of ​​about three square kilometers. Ancient buildings are now in the open, cleared of plant space. The city is carefully maintained road that busses with tourists.
42 Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana and Idaho, United States

Yellowstone National Park - International Biosphere Reserve, a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, the world's first National Park (established March 1, 1872). Located in the United States, the states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. The park is famous for the numerous geysers and other geothermal sites, rich wildlife, beautiful landscapes.

The park area - 900 thousand. Hectares. According to archaeological data people started living here 11,000 years ago.Modern researchers have first appeared in the region in 1805, but until 1860 there has not been any economic or scientific activities. In the first years after the appearance of the park, he was under the control of the United States Army, and in 1917 was transferred to the management set up for two years before the National Park Service.

On the vast territory of the park are lakes, rivers, canyons and caves. Yellowstone Lake, one of the largest high-altitude lakes in North America, is located in the center of the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The caldera is considered dormant supervolcano; it has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years.Most of the park is covered with solidified lava; in the park is one of five of the world's geyser fields.

Grow in the park about two thousand species of plants, there are several hundred species of mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, including endangered. Most of the territory is covered by forest, the smaller - the steppe. Every year forest fires; about one-third of all forests burned as a result of catastrophic fires in 1988. Yellowstone National Park - one of the most visited in the United States. Since the 1960s, it annually receives over two million visitors.

The park was laid several hundred kilometers of asphalt roads, on which the access of visitors. There are numerous opportunities for outdoor activities. Mountaineering and climbing are not developed, as the mountains in Yellowstone Park are composed primarily of very brittle volcanic rocks. Hunting is totally prohibited, and even pets can be displayed only on a leash, and only near the roads, campgrounds and around data centers. But fishing is allowed.

43 Island of Aruba, Aruba, Caribbean

Aruba Island - a small island in the Caribbean Sea near the coast of Venezuela. Is the subject of the federation within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Area of the island of Aruba, which is the westernmost of the Lesser Antilles, is less than 200 square meters. km, the length of the island - about 30 km and a width of only 8 km. The highest point of the island yavletsya vertex Yamanote height of less than 200 m.

Population of Aruba - a little more than a hundred thousand people. There are various theories about the origin of the name of the island. It is most likely that the word "Aruba" comes from the Indian word «ora» («shell») and «oubao» («Island"), which in combination can mean "island of shells." Another theory is that the name may be derived from the Spanish «oro hubo» («there was gold") associated with the search for a Spanish navigator gold in the Caribbean region.

The first indication of the island on the map is dated 1562 year, where he is listed as «Orua». About the earliest inhabitants of Aruba know very little. Excavations show that the island was inhabited long before its discovery by Spanish explorers, the earliest of its inhabitants lived about 2500 BC The island's population were Indians from the Arawak tribe. They were fishermen, hunters and gatherers, using primitive tools made of stone and shells. Archaeological studies (rock paintings, burial) show that the culture of the Indians of Aruba was similar to the inhabitants of South America. At various times, captured the island caribbean, Spanish, Dutch. Aruba is now the head of the Queen of the Netherlands, which is represented on the island by the governor.

Climate Aruba - dry tropical. The average annual rainfall is only quantitative 432 mm, and the basis of it falling in October-November. But despite the small amount of rainfall flora of the island is rich enough. The most common plants growing in Aruba are divi-divi and aloe vera. Aruba no large animals, but often there are small lizards and geckos, and dozens of species of birds that visit the island during migration between North and South America. The decision to develop the tourism industry was taken during the crisis associated with the closure of the refinery in 1985. Now the island is visited annually by thousands of tourists, and the island is considered one of the most beautiful in the world.
44 The Colosseum, Rome, Italy

Colosseum (lat. Colosseum) - the largest of the ancient Roman amphitheater and one of the most remarkable structures in the world. Located in Rome, in a hollow between Eskvillinskim, Palatine and Tselievskim hills. The construction of the amphitheater was launched in the year 70 AD Emperor Vespasian after his victories in the West. Construction was completed in 80 of the last son - Emperor Titus. The opening of the Colosseum was marked by games. Originally known as the Colosseum, on the generic name mentioned emperors "Flavian Amphitheatre" (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), current name (lat. Colosseum, Italian. Coliseo) was established to him afterwards, since the VIII century, and occurred either from the enormity of its size, or from the fact that it was close to the giant statue, erected in honor of Nero himself.

Like other Roman amphitheater Flavian Amphitheatre is in terms of an ellipse whose center is occupied by the scene (also elliptical in shape) and its surrounding concentric rings of seats for spectators. From all facilities of this kind is characterized by its magnitude Coliseum. This is the grand ancient amphitheater: the length of its outer ellipse is equal to 524 m, the length of the arena - 85 m, a width of 53 m; height of its walls - from 48 to 50 meters. At this size, it can accommodate up to 87,000 spectators.

The Colosseum was a long time for the people of Rome and visiting the main place of entertainment spectacle: gladiator fights, animal baiting, naval battles (naumahii). Contrary to popular belief that Christians were executed in the Colosseum, recent research indicates that it was a myth created by the Catholic Church in the coming years. In 248, Emperor Philip celebrated in it with great views of the millennium of Rome's existence. Honorius in 405 banned gladiatorial battle as disagreeing with the spirit of Christianity, however, animal harassment continued to occur at the Coliseum before the death of Theodoric the Great (451-526 gg. N. E.). After that came the Flavian Amphitheatre sad times. Barbarian invasion led him to desolation and laid the foundation for its destruction. It began to look as a source of obtaining a building material.

The best attitude to the majestic monument of ancient architecture began only in the middle of the XVIII century, and the first to take him under his protection was Pope Benedict XIV. He dedicated it to the Passion of Christ as a place steeped in the blood of many Christian martyrs, and ordered to hoist the huge arena in the middle of his cross, and around him to put a number of altars in memory of torture, the procession to Calvary and crucifixion of the Savior. This cross and the altars were removed from the Coliseum only in 1874.

With great attention guarded Coliseum current Italian government, in order that under the guidance of scientists, many archaeologists were lying construction debris stuck on the old place, and in the arena made curious excavations led to the discovery of the basement, which once served as a fact to push into the arena of people and animals, trees and other decorations, or fill it with water, and even lift up the ships. Now become a symbol of the Colosseum of Rome and one of the most popular tourist sites.
45 Huanglong, Sichuan Province, China
Are you traveling THREE AND Nochka

Huanglong (in Chinese "yellow dragon") - a picturesque nature reserve area, known for its travertine terraces and numerous lakes of various colors and shapes. Located in the highlands in the north-west province of Sichuan (county Sunpan), about 200 km north of Chengdu City. The reserve is home to a number of rare animals such as the giant panda and golden snub-nosed monkey. Dissolved in water for millennia calcite crystallized and settled on a variety of surfaces, forming travertine landscape: lakes, rapids, waterfalls, caves.

The largest number of such objects is concentrated in the valley Huanlungou. In the middle tier of the gorge formed a 1300-meter-high travertine threshold width in places from 40 to 122 m. Hrebetoobrazny relief threshold naturally promotes sedimentation of calcium carbonate in the form of "borders", in which form the reservoirs, water runs down the hill and forms travertine thresholds covered sedimentary layer as scales.

These thresholds are mostly golden brown, but impurities can give them milk-white, gray and dark green shades. When you look down from the top on the stretches along the ridge of the gorge, shining golden scales and trembling rippling water, it seems that you see a giant yellow dragon. On this point, saying: "Threshold, covered with golden sand."

In addition, in the Huanglong valley is Mouna Chzhaga waterfall. Water falls from a height of 93 m and a width of 40 m, and is the largest waterfall in China for a drop height. In Huanglong river begins Fujian, interesting mainly over its direct and winding canals. Also in the area is Huanglong Mountain Peak, reaching a height of over 5,500 m, and which is covered with snow all year round.

46 Mosque of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain

Mosque in Cordoba - an ancient Roman Catholic cathedral located in the Andalusian city of Cordoba in Spain. To the XIII century it was one of the largest mosques in the world. It was founded in 786 by the Emir Abdarrahmanom I Visigoth church on the site of St. Vincent, which the Emir for the big money bought from the Christian population of Córdoba.

In IX-X centuries mosque completed and expanded, reaching a size of 22 000 sq.m. The main place in the cathedral is the 17-nave prayer hall with rows of arches supported by columns. Columns were once carved out of ancient and Byzantine buildings.

The interior of the mosque used magnificent marble carved panel, multi-color mosaic of floral ornament, sent from Constantinople. In the courtyard (Orange yard) Mosque, located 5 fountains for washing. The minaret is decorated with marble columns. Mosque surrounded by walls, the height of which varies from 8 to 20 meters. These walls of hewn stone tower, topped by stepped battlements, give the mosque a fortress.

After the expulsion of the Moors from the mosque in 1238 became a Christian cathedral. With regard to the construction of the church in this place ignite serious passions, the population of Córdoba was against this construction. And then after a long dispute, Archbishop of Cordoba appealed to Emperor Charles V, who gave his permission to build a church inside the mosque. Then the doors were closed 19 facing the yard, along the inner walls of the building of the chapel was built, a minaret converted into a bell tower. However, later the Emperor regretted his consent, allegedly saying: "You've built something that could be built anywhere, and destroyed what was unique in the world."
47 Giant's Causeway, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Giant's Causeway - an area where there are about 40 thousand interconnected basalt columns, formed as a result of an ancient volcanic eruption. The road is located on the north-east of Northern Ireland, about 3 km north of Bushmills. The tops of the columns form a trampoline shape that starts at the foot of the cliff and disappears below the sea surface. Most of the columns, hexagonal, although some have four, five, seven and eight corners. Highest about 12 meters.

In one of the legends says that Finn MakKumal, determined to fight the monstrous one-eyed opponent Gaulle not to soak your feet, hammered into the bottom of the Irish Sea, a series of columns, and thus built a bridge. Charter, he lay down to rest. At this time, Gall himself passed over the bridge in Ireland, and came to Finn. Finn's wife, pointing to her sleeping husband, lied, saying that it was her baby-son. In addition, it has treated its cakes, baked inside which flat iron frying pan, and when the giant began to break on their teeth, gave a second cake, a simple "baby-Finn", who calmly ate it. Imagining how a giant would be the father of this rather big "baby", Gall fled in terror, on the way to destroy the bridge.

Giant's Causeway won international fame in the late XVII century. And the first tourists came here in the XIX century. Now tourists can can walk on the basalt columns about a kilometer along the coast. Road declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a national nature reserve. This is the most popular tourist attraction in Northern Ireland.

48 Milford Sound, o.Yuzhny, New Zealand

Milford Sound - a fjord on the South Island of New Zealand, part of the National Park Fordlends. This narrow bay 20-kilometers long with steep banks. It was formed during the last ice age, when driving to the sea glacier, forced a deep hollow in the rock. About 10 000 years ago, the glacier retreated, and the Tasman Sea flooded the valley formed.

This is one of the wettest places on Earth: rain here comes two out of every three days. Precipitation turn into streams of water, falling from more than 300 meters high into the fjord. Entrance to the Bay is protected by a mountain Mithras (with an altitude of almost 1,700 m).

The magic beauty of the mountains surrounding the Milford Sound, and his dark blue sparkling waters, fringed by dense forest, made such an impression on the English writer Rudyard Kipling, he called it the eighth wonder of the world. Here is found a rare and strange bird - flightless mullet.

Sultanka.Sultanskaya chicken, the sultan chicken, RI: Porphyrio Brisson = the sultan chicken, mullet View: Porphyrio porphyrio =

She was considered extinct until 1947, when it was discovered colony of these birds numbering about 100 individuals. Almost as rare and kakapo - green parrot.

Saving The Kakapo

He looks like an owl and spends the daytime in a hole. Milford Sound is named after the little town of Milford Haven in Wales English. At the local Maori fjord called Piopiotahi (named extinct birds Piopi).

In addition to the most beautiful mountains of Mithra, Milford Sound is also famous for Elephantiasis peak (1.5 km high) and the Mountain Lion (1.3 km). Each year, the Milford Sound is visited by over half a million tourists, which allowed to call this place the most visited in the whole of New Zealand.
Borobudur and Prambanan 49, o.Yava, Indonesia

Borobudur - Buddhist stupa and associated temple complex tradition of Mahayana Buddhism - the largest Buddhist monument in the world. Borobudur is located on the island of Java in Indonesia Central Java province, 40 kilometers north-west of the city of Yogyakarta. The name may derive from the Sanskrit "Vihara Buddha Ur," which translates to "a Buddhist temple on the mountain."

Borobudur is built as a huge stupa, which is in the form of a giant mandala. The foundation of the stupa square with a side of 118 m. Stupa are eight tiers, five lower - square, and the top three - round. This mandala expresses the scheme of the universe according to Buddhist ideas. Located on the upper level of 72 small stupas surrounding one large central stupa. Each stupa in the shape of a bell with a lot of jewelry. Inside stupas placed 504 Buddha statues and bas-reliefs 1460 on religious subjects. Stupa built of 2 million blocks of stone. Until now, scientists could not determine the exact date and the period of construction of the temple. Archaeologists suggest that the temple was taken up in the VIII-IX centuries.

Until now, Borobudur is a place of pilgrimage and prayer. Pilgrims seven times pass around at each tier level clockwise.According to researchers, the construction can be seen as a great book for pilgrims. Upon completion of the ritual, pilgrims crawl each tier acquainted with the life of Buddha and his teachings with elements. Three levels symbolize the three spheres of the whereabouts of: Kamadhatu (sphere of passions), Rupadhatu (spherical forms) and Arupadhatu (sphere without forms).

Hundreds of years of Borobudur lay covered with volcanic ash and overgrown jungle. As this unique monument had been forgotten and left behind - is not yet clear. In the middle of the XX century, it has been suggested that after the eruption of Mount Merapi disaster forced people to leave their land and seek other habitats. Eruption occurred at the beginning of the I millennium. Only 800 years later during the British occupation of the island during the Anglo-Dutch War, the monument was discovered. Then the monument was heavily plundered. At the beginning of the XX century. was made the first major restoration of the complex.

Prambanan - a complex of early medieval Buddhist and Hindu temples, located in the central part of the island of Java, 18 km east of Yogyakarta on the southern slope of Mount Merapi, near Borobudur stupa and the royal palace Ratu Boko.Restored Dutch scientists in the first half of XX century.

The most popular among tourists is a grand 47-meter temple Lara Dzhongrang - the biggest in Indonesia, dedicated to Lord Shiva. The translation of his name means "slender maiden" - the nickname given to the statue of the goddess Durga in the main sanctuary. Information about the time and circumstances of the construction Lara Dzhongranga scarce and contradictory. It is most likely that the temple was built at the beginning of the X century governor of the state of Mataram named Dhaksa. It consists of four tiers (possibly by number of castes) and is surrounded by four walls with as many gates.
50 Peterhof, Leningrad region, Russia

Peterhof (translated from niderl. "court of Peter") - palace and park ensemble on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, 30 km from Saint-Petersburg. Located in the city of Peterhof (modern name - Petrodvorets). Before the revolution, Peterhof served as the imperial residence. In 1918, the palaces have been converted into museums. During the war, Peterhof was occupied by German troops. Before their arrival managed to evacuate more than 8 thousand. Objects of decoration of palaces and about 50 statues. However, Peterhof was almost completely destroyed by Soviet artillery. After the war, the restoration of Peterhof, which is still ongoing.

Center of the ensemble - the Grand Palace, built on the seaside terrace and facing the sea. The first palace was built in the style of "Peter's baroque" in 1714-1725, respectively, and then finished in the style of "mature Baroque." An important part of the ensemble - parks with fountains: Upper Park (the south side) with five fountains and the Lower Park, where the world's largest fountain complex. Lower area of ​​the park - more than 100 hectares. Fountains powered by a key near the river Ropsha conduit for longer than 20 km, built in the first half of the XVIII century. Decorative foot of the palace is a large cave with its framing stages (Grand Cascade). Large cascade down to the pool and the sea channel. In the center of the pool - a fountain with a sculpture of "Samson tearing the lion's mouth" (1802, sculptor M. Kozlovsky) with a height of 20 m of the jet.

On both sides of "bucket" is a large (Italian and French), fountains and colonnades; in the eastern part of the park - "Chess Mountain" and two Roman fountain in the west - a cascade of "Gold Mountain" (Marly) and 2 large (Menazhernyh) fountain.From the Grand Palace to the Gulf of Finland leads the sea channel. In 2007, along the Sea Canal was carved alley blue spruce. In the future, according to the administration, is scheduled to land on the site of the felled trees spruce.

Grand Peterhof Palace - the main building of the Peterhof palace and park ensemble. Originally a modest royal palace, then was rebuilt Elizabeth model of Versailles. At Peterhof annually celebrated two events: the celebration of the opening of fountains and holiday closure. Trial run carried out on May 9, the day the entrance to the park is free.

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